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Linux中安装sosreport和supportconfig来收集系统信息

作者:佚名 来源:网络整理 更新时间:2016-1-7
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   sosreport

  sosreport是一个类型于supportconfig 的工具,sosreport是python编写的一个工具,适用于centos(和redhat一样,包名为sos)、ubuntu(其下包名为sosreport)等大多数版本的linux 。sosreport在github上的托管页面为:https://github.com/sosreport/sos ,而且默认在很多系统的源里都已经集成有。如果使用的是正版redhat,在出现系统问题,寻求官方支持时,官方一般也会通过sosreport将收集的信息进行分析查看。需要注意的是在一些老的redhat发行版中叫sysreport ------ 如redhat4.5之前的版本中。

  一、sosreport的安装

  在默认使用linux发行版的源进行安装时,由于在不同的系统上包名称也会有差异,所以使用的命令也不同,如redhat和ubuntu平台的安装如下:

  代码如下:

  // redhat/centos下的安装

  # yum -y insatll sos

  // ubuntu下的安装

  # sudo apt-get install sosreport

  二、sosreport用法

  可以使用sosreport --help或man sosreport 获取使用帮助手册,如下:

  代码如下:

  [root@361way ~]# sosreport --help

  Usage: sosreport [options]

  Options:

  -h, --help show this help message and exit

  -l, --list-plugins list plugins and available plugin options

  -n NOPLUGINS, --skip-plugins=NOPLUGINS

  disable these plugins

  -e ENABLEPLUGINS, --enable-plugins=ENABLEPLUGINS

  enable these plugins

  -o ONLYPLUGINS, --only-plugins=ONLYPLUGINS

  enable these plugins only

  -k PLUGOPTS, --plugin-option=PLUGOPTS

  plugin options in plugname.option=value format (see

  -l)

  -a, --alloptions enable all options for loaded plugins

  --batch batch mode - do not prompt interactively

  --build keep sos tree available and dont package results

  -v, --verbose increase verbosity

  --quiet only print fatal errors

  --debug enable interactive debugging using the python debugger

  --ticket-number=TICKET_NUMBER

  specify ticket number

  --name=CUSTOMER_NAME specify report name

  --config-file=CONFIG_FILE

  specify alternate configuration file

  --tmp-dir=TMP_DIR specify alternate temporary directory

  --report Enable HTML/XML reporting

  --profile turn on profiling

  -z COMPRESSION_TYPE, --compression-type=COMPRESSION_TYPE

  compression technology to use [auto, zip, gzip, bzip2,

  xz] (default=auto)

  Some examples:

  enable cluster plugin only and collect dlm lockdumps:

  # sosreport -o cluster -k cluster.lockdump

  disable memory and samba plugins, turn off rpm -Va collection:

  # sosreport -n memory,samba -k rpm.rpmva=off

  上面也列出了具体操作的示例。其中-l 参数会列出当前enable和disable的所有服务插件及当前available的所有插件。

  代码如下:

  [root@361way log]# sosreport -a --report

  sosreport (version 3.0)

  This command will collect diagnostic and configuration information from

  this CentOS Linux system and installed applications.

  An archive containing the collected information will be generated in

  /var/tmp and may be provided to a CentOS support representative.

  Any information provided to CentOS will be treated in accordance with

  the published support policies at:

  https://www.centos.org/

  The generated archive may contain data considered sensitive and its

  content should be reviewed by the originating organization before being

  passed to any third party.

  No changes will be made to system configuration.

  Press ENTER to continue, or CTRL-C to quit.

  Please enter your first initial and last name [361way.com]:

  Please enter the case number that you are generating this report for:

  Running plugins. Please wait ...

  Running 68/68: yum...

  Creating compressed archive...

  Your sosreport has been generated and saved in:

  /var/tmp/sosreport-361way.com-20140912204339.tar.xz

  The checksum is: eaf5b2cbb1e9be68d41be5e5a60a61b6

  Please send this file to your support representative.

  如上所示,我使用-A 启用所有的模块,--report是开启所有的结果以html /xml 的格式一个总的报告。生成的包需要通过下面的命令进行解包。

  代码如下:

  # xz -d ***.tar.xz

  # tar -xvf ***.tar

  或直接使用下面的命令一步完成解压

  代码如下:

  tar xvJf ***.tar.xz

  在解包后的sos_reports 目录会有report的结果sos.html文件生成,同时会有sos.txt文件生成,该文件内列出了具体执行的命令及copy 文件的一些信息。

  由于页面较大,这里只截出了最上面的部分,列出了所有的收集模块,下面alerts 给出了报警模块的信息。再往下就是具体到每一个模块的信息。

  三、sosreport配置文件

  sosreport的配置文件是/etc/sos.conf ,默认内容如下:

  代码如下:

  [root@361way ~]# cat /etc/sos.conf

  [general]

  #ftp_upload_url = ftp://example.com/incoming

  #gpg_keyring = /usr/share/sos/rhsupport.pub

  #gpg_recipient = support@redhat.com

  smtp_server = None

  [plugins] //此处可以设置默认enable和disable的模块

  #disable = rpm, selinux, dovecot

  [tunables] //可调参数

  #rpm.rpmva = off

  #general.syslogsize = 15

  从配置文件上可以看出,sosreport同样将收集的结果上传到server 上,可以通过man sos.conf 查看配置文件的帮助信息,不过man给出的并没有太多信息,想在了解更多的信息可以查看 sosreport在github上的wiki页 。

  四、sosreport总结

  相于supportconfig,由于sosreport是由python语言进行编写的,所以其在功能扩展上更有优势,但由于在不同的发行版本上的python版本不同,在进行功能扩展时,对不同版本间的异常处理相对麻烦。而supportconfig由于是shell 语言编写的一个工具,对版本的依赖相对少些 ,但对一些工具的依赖相对多些 ,如在获取进程相关的信息时,shell 需要将ps 工具或处理proc的结果,而sosreport则可以直接import psutil 模块,两者之间的区别,归根到底就是shell 和python的区别。

  supportconfig

  一、supportconfig的安装

  可以通过yast进行安装,也可以通过zypper命令进行安装,安装命令如下:

  直接使用源进行安装

  代码如下:

  #zypper install supportutils

  也可以将rpm包下载下来使用yast进行安装或者在yast的管理界面里查找安装

  代码如下:

  #yast install supportutils-xxx.rpm

  注:根据系统的版本不同,包名也可能是supportconfig 。

  安装完成后可以使用rpm -ql supportutils 查看包中具体包含的文件信息,如下:

  代码如下:

  # rpm -ql supportutils

  /etc/schealth.conf

  /etc/supportconfig.conf

  /sbin/chkbin

  /sbin/supportconfig

  /usr/bin/schealth

  /usr/share/man/man5/supportconfig.conf.5.gz

  /usr/share/man/man8/chkbin.8.gz

  /usr/share/man/man8/supportconfig.8.gz

  注:上面的结果是在 suse11 sp1企业版上的测试的结果,在opensuse 13上目录结构会略有不同,其上使用的是新版本的supportconfig。

  二、supportconfig用法

  以下是supportconfig的帮助输出

  复制代码

  代码如下:

  # supportconfig -h

  =============================================================================

  Support Utilities - Supportconfig

  Script Version: 2.25-197

  Script Date: 2010 04 02

  =============================================================================

  Usage: supportconfig [OPTION [OPTION ...]]

  -h This screen

  -A Activates all supportconfig functions with additional logging and full

  rpm verification.

  -B Custom tar ball file name element

  -C Creates a new default /etc/supportconfig.conf

  -D Use defaults; ignore /etc/supportconfig.conf

  -E Contact email address

  -F Display available supportconfig feature keywords (case-sensitive) used

  with -i and -x

  -G The GPG recipient's user ID used to encrypt the supportconfig tarball

  -H Limit number of included HA Policy engine files

  -I Default log file line count

  -L Create a full file listing from '/'

  -M Contact terminal ID

  -N Contact name

  -O Contact company name

  -P Contact phone number

  -Q Run in silent mode

  -R Log output directory

  -S Limit number of included SAR files

  -T Binary execution timeout

  -U Sets upload target URL and initiates an upload, supported

  services include: ftp, scp, http, https

  -M Contact store ID

  -X Max system logs line count

  -a Upload the tar ball to the specified alternate target VAR_OPTION_UPLOAD_ALT

  -b Screen buffer mode

  -d Exclude detailed disk info and scans

  -e Search root file system for eDirectory instances; -L implied. Be patient.

  -f From directory. Don't collect report files, just use files in that

  directory.

  -g Use gzip instead of the default bzip2 compression.

  -i

  Include keywords. A comma separated list of feature keywords that specify

  which features to include. Use -F to see a list of valid keywords.

  -l Gathers additional rotated logs

  -m Only gather a minimum amount of info: basic env, basic health, hardware,

  rpm, messages, y2logs

  -o Toggle listed features on or off

  -p Disable all plugins

  -q Add a uuid to the tar ball filename to ensure uniqueness

  -r

  Includes the Novell 11 digit service request number when uploading

  the tar ball to Novell

  -s Include full SLP service lists

  -t Target directory. Just save log files here, do not create tarball.

  -u Upload the tar ball to the specified VAR_OPTION_UPLOAD_TARGET.

  -v Performs an rpm -V for each installed rpm NOTE: This takes a long time

  to complete

  -x

  Exclude keywords. A comma separated list of feature keywords that specify

  which features to exclude. Use -F to see a list of valid keywords.

  -y Only gather the minimum y2log files.

  Use Ctrl- to try and skip a function that is hanging.

  -----------------------------------------------------------------------------

  NOTE:

  This tool will create a tar ball in the /var/log directory. Please attach

  the log file tar ball to your open Service. Request at the following URL:

  https://secure-support.novell.com/eService_enu

  If you cannot attach the tar ball to the SR, then email it to the engineer.

  Please submit bug fixes or comments via:

  http://en.opensuse.org/Supportutils#Reporting_Bugs

  =============================================================================

  Support Utilities - Supportconfig

  Script Version: 2.25-197

  Script Date: 2010 04 02

  =============================================================================

  默认supportconfig或supportconfig -A执行后会将收集后的结果打包为一个nts_主机名_日期.tbz 文件,同时会生成一个以该文件名加.md5后缀的文件。

  三、supportconfig常用示例

  1、supportconfig -A 收集所有日志

  复制代码

  代码如下:

  # supportconfig

  =============================================================================

  Support Utilities - Supportconfig

  Script Version: 2.25-290

  Script Date: 2011 07 14

  =============================================================================

  Gathering system information

  Data Directory: /var/log/nts_361way.com_140825_1504

  Basic Server Health Check... Done

  RPM Database... Done

  Basic Environment... Done

  Basic Health Report... Done

  System Modules... Done

  Memory Details... Done

  Disk I/O... Done

  YaST Files... Done

  Auditing... Done

  Crash Info... Done

  NTP... Done

  PROC... Done

  Boot Files... Done

  SLERT... Skipped

  Updates... Done

  SMT... Skipped

  Novell eDirectory... Please Wait... Skipped

  Novell LUM... Skipped

  Novell NCP... Skipped

  Novell NSS... Skipped

  Novell DFS... Skipped

  Novell SMS... Skipped

  Novell NCS... Skipped

  Novell AFP... Skipped

  Novell CIFS... Skipped

  Novell iManager... Skipped

  HA Cluster... Skipped

  OCFS2... Skipped

  DRBD... Skipped

  PAM... Done

  LDAP... Done

  CIMOM... Done

  Open Files... Done

  Environment... Done

  ETC... Done

  SYSCONFIG... Done

  SYSFS... Done

  System Daemons... Done

  CRON... Done

  AT... Done

  UDEV... Done

  LVM... Please Wait... Base Detail Done

  EVMS... Skipped

  Software Raid... Done

  Multipathing... Done

  Networking... Done

  Web... Done

  InfiniBand... Done

  DNS... Done

  DHCP... Done

  SLP... Done

  SSH... Done

  iSCSI... Done

  Samba... Done

  NFS... Done

  AUTOFS... Done

  SAR Files... Done

  AppArmor... Done

  Xen... Done

  KVM... Done

  X... Done

  Printing... Done

  SMART Disks... Excluded

  Hardware... Please Wait... Done

  File System List... Skipped

  Supportability Analysis... Please Wait... Done

  System Logs... Done

  Creating Tar Ball

  ==[ DONE ]===================================================================

  Log file tar ball: /var/log/nts_361way.com_140825_1504.tbz

  Log file size: 4.0M

  Log file md5sum: 484b111cda54ca04419facd82a1da7d7

  Please attach the log file tar ball to your open Service Request at the

  following URL:

  https://secure-support.novell.com/eService_enu

  You can also upload the tar ball to ftp.novell.com/incoming, or just use

  supportconfig -ur , to upload the tar ball automatically.

  If you cannot attach the tar ball to the SR, then email it to the engineer.

  =============================================================================

  其他常用用法:

  复制代码

  代码如下:

  //以最小选项搜集所需的信息

  # supportconfig -m

  //在输出中包含附加的联系人信息

  # supportconfig -E tux@example.org -N "Tux Penguin" -O "Penguin Inc." ...

  //要查看完整的功能列表

  # supportconfig -F

  //仅收集某个模块的用法,如LVM相的信息

  # supportconfig -i LVM

  //-x 的功能与-i刚好相反,是排除某个模块不收集

  # supportconfig -x LVM

  //使用-U url 可以将收集的结果上传到服务器上,直接的服务有ftp, scp, http, https,如:

  # supportconfig -A -U http://www.361way.com/files/

  具体可以参看官方的 常用的supportconfig选项 部分 。

  supportconfig收集的系统健康报告:

  代码如下:

  # supportconfig -A

  # cd /var/log

  # tar jxvf nts_361way.com_140825_1504.tbz

  # more basic-health-report.txt

  #==[ Command ]======================================#

  # /usr/bin/schealth -q

  ######################################################################

  Supportconfig Health Check Report Tool v1.00-5

  Date Checked: 09/12/14 04:40:37

  ######################################################################

  Health Check Files [ Green ]

  Processes Waiting for Run Queue [ Green ]

  Kernel Taint Status [ Red ]

  Kernel Tainted: 64 > 0

  CPU Utilization [ Green ]

  Interrupts Per Second [ Green ]

  Context Switches Per Second [ Green ]

  Free Memory and Disk Swapping [ Green ]

  Used Disk Space [ Green ]

  Uninterruptible Processes [ Green ]

  Zombie Processes [ Green ]

  ######################################################################

  Status: Red Flag

  Checked: /var/log/nts_361way.com_140825_1504/basic-health-check.txt

  Report: /var/log/nts_361way.com_140825_1504/basic-health-report.txt

  ######################################################################

  上面的报告中,我们发现kernel Tainted 状态为red ,该处是通过cat /proc/sys/kernel/tainted 进行判断的,如果值不为0,则是内核受到污染 ,显的值不同,具体可以参看/usr/src/linux/Documentation/sysctl/kernel 文件(具体的值不一样,代表的意义也不一样)。64报红是由于加载了非系统官方或非开源的模块所致( Unsupported modules loaded)。

  四、supportconfig配置文件

  supportconfig的默认配置文件是 /etc/supportconfig.conf ,其默认内容如下:

  代码如下:

  # cat /etc/supportconfig.conf

  ####################################

  # Default Options

  ####################################

  OPTION_AFP=1

  OPTION_APPARMOR=1

  OPTION_AUDIT=1

  OPTION_AUTOFS=1

  OPTION_BOOT=1

  OPTION_CHKCONFIG=1

  OPTION_CIFS=1

  OPTION_CIMOM=1

  OPTION_CRASH=1

  OPTION_CRON=1

  OPTION_DFS=1

  OPTION_DHCP=1

  OPTION_DISK=1

  OPTION_DNS=1

  OPTION_EDIR=1

  OPTION_ENV=1

  OPTION_ETC=1

  OPTION_EVMS=1

  OPTION_HA=1

  OPTION_HCREPORT=1

  OPTION_IB=1

  OPTION_ISCSI=1

  OPTION_LDAP=1

  OPTION_LUM=1

  OPTION_LVM=1

  OPTION_MEM=1

  OPTION_MOD=1

  OPTION_MPIO=1

  OPTION_NCP=1

  OPTION_NCS=1

  OPTION_NET=1

  OPTION_NFS=1

  OPTION_NSS=1

  OPTION_NTP=1

  OPTION_OCFS2=1

  OPTION_OFILES=1

  OPTION_PAM=1

  OPTION_PRINT=1

  OPTION_PROC=1

  OPTION_SAM=1

  OPTION_SAR=1

  OPTION_SLERT=1

  OPTION_SLP=1

  OPTION_SMART=0

  OPTION_SMB=1

  OPTION_SMS=1

  OPTION_SMT=1

  OPTION_SRAID=1

  OPTION_SSH=1

  OPTION_SYSCONFIG=1

  OPTION_SYSFS=1

  OPTION_UDEV=1

  OPTION_UP=1

  OPTION_UPD=1

  OPTION_WEB=1

  OPTION_X=1

  OPTION_XEN=1

  ADD_OPTION_EDIR=0

  ADD_OPTION_FSLIST=0

  ADD_OPTION_LOGS=0

  ADD_OPTION_MINDISK=0

  ADD_OPTION_MINYAST=0

  ADD_OPTION_RPMV=0

  ADD_OPTION_SLP=0

  VAR_OPTION_BIN_TIMEOUT_SEC=300

  VAR_OPTION_CONTACT_COMPANY=""

  VAR_OPTION_CONTACT_EMAIL=""

  VAR_OPTION_CONTACT_NAME=""

  VAR_OPTION_CONTACT_PHONE=""

  VAR_OPTION_CONTACT_STOREID=""

  VAR_OPTION_CONTACT_TERMINALID=""

  VAR_OPTION_CUSTOM_ARCH=""

  VAR_OPTION_GPG_UID=""

  VAR_OPTION_LINE_COUNT=500

  VAR_OPTION_LOG_DIRS="/var/log /tmp"

  VAR_OPTION_MSG_MAXSIZE=500000

  VAR_OPTION_PENGINE_FILES_LIMIT=250

  VAR_OPTION_SAR_FILES_LIMIT=30

  VAR_OPTION_SBM=0

  VAR_OPTION_SILENT=0

  VAR_OPTION_UNIQUE_FILE=0

  VAR_OPTION_UPLOAD_ALT='https://secure-www.novell.com/upload?appname=supportconfig&file={tarball}'

  VAR_OPTION_UPLOAD_TARGET='ftp://ftp.novell.com/incoming'

  配置文件中列出了默认收集的模块信息,公司信息、邮件、电话及上传的服务器目录等。

  五、supportconfig总结

  supportconfig是使用shell 编写的一个功能十分强大的工具,具体可以通过vim /sbin/supportconfig 查看 。同时,由于linux命令上的通用性,我们甚至可以很简单的进行修改后将其移植到其他linux 发行版上。不过显然这是没必要的,因为还有一个比较通的用的开源工具sosreport和其作用差不多,而其适用性更强,后面会单独列一篇做一个总结。

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